Factors and parameters of body posture. Structure and mechanical and physical properties of the human osteoarticular system. Fundamentals of strength of tissue materials. Biomechanical aspects of tissue structure overload. Structure and biomechanics of the spine. Stabilizers used in the treatment of spinal disorders. Some selected issues of anatomy and biomechanics of the hip joint. Structure  and anatomical components of the knee joint. External stabilization of long bones. Characteristics of external stabilizer structures. Structure of some selected stabilizers. Limb lengthening methods. Selected issues of tribology of joints.